Pregnancy

Pregnancy is the fertilization and development of one or more offspring, known as an embryo or fetus, in a woman’s uterus. In a pregnancy, there can be multiple gestations, as in the case of twins or triplets. Childbirth usually occurs about 38 weeks after conception; in women who have a menstrual cycle length of four weeks, this is approximately 40 weeks from the start of the last normal menstrual period (LNMP). Human pregnancy is the most studied of all mammalian pregnancies.

 

References

Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Deeds, O., and B. Figueiredo. 2009. “Pregnancy Massage Reduces Prematurity, Low Birthweight, and Postpartum Depression.”

Fitelson, Elizabeth, Kim, Sarah, Baker, Allison Scott, and Kristin Leight. 2011. “Treatment of postpartum depression: clinical, psychological and pharmacological options.

Field T, Grizzle N, Scafidi F, Schanberg S. Massage and relaxation therapies’ effects on depressed adolescent mothers. Adolescence. 1996;31(124):903–911.

O’Higgins M, St James Roberts I, Glover V. Postnatal depression and mother and infant outcomes after infant massage. J Affect Disord. 2008;109:189–192.

Onozawa K, Glover V, Adams D, Modi N, Kumar RC. Infant massage improves mother-infant interaction for mothers with postnatal depression. J Affect Disorde. 2001;63(1–3):201–7.